CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

University of Houston
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
N107 Engineering Building 1
Houston, TX 77204-4003
Phone: 713-743-4250
Fax: 713-743-4260
Contact us

Faculty

James M. Symons, Sc.D., P.E. (Emeritus), DEE

Cullen Distinguished Professor Emeritus

4942 88th Street East
Lakewood Ranch, FL 34211-3730

Travel Pictures

Phone: 941-756-4674 | Fax: 800-861-4464
Email: dr [dot] water [at] alum [dot] mit [dot] edu

Education

  • Sc.D. Sanitary Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1957
  • S.M. Sanitary Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1955
  • B.C.E. (with Distinction) Civil Engineering, Cornell University, 1954
  • Certificate of Advanced Engineering, Civil Engineering, Cornell University, 1954

Professional Experience

1997–Present Retired, Cullen Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering
1995–1997 Cullen Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering
1982–1995 Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas
1970–1982 Chief, Physical and Chemical Contaminants Removal Branch, Drinking Water Research Division, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio
Formerly, Chief, Control Technology Branch, Division of Criteria and Standards, Bureau of Water Hygiene, U.S. Public Health Service
1967–1969 Chief, Surface Water Protection Section, Control Technology Branch, Division of Criteria and Standards, Bureau of Water Hygiene, U.S. Public Health Service, Cincinnati, Ohio
1962–1967 Research Public Health Engineer, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service and U.S. Department of Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio
1958–1962 Assistant Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
1957–1961 Associate, Rolf Eliassen Associates, Inc., Industrial waste consulting engineering firm, Arlington, Massachusetts
1956–1958 Instructor of Sanitary Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
1955–1957 Research Assistant to Dr. Ross E. McKinney

Classes

Classes Taught
  • CIVE 4333 Water and Wastewater Treatment
  • CIVE 4311 Civil Engineering Design
  • CIVE 7397/6390 Municipal Drinking Water Treatment
  • CIVE 7379/7330 Control of Organic Contaminants
  • CIVE 6111 Graduate Seminar
Supervision of Research
  • PhD Dissertation Students (2)
  • MS Thesis Students (13)
  • MS Project Students (9)

Students Supervised

Ph.D. Dissertation Students
  • Heon-Soo Kim, "Removal Mechanisms for Various Molecular Weight Fractions of Natural Organic Carbon Using Anion Exchange Resins", May 1990.
  • Paul L. K. Fu "Characterization of Natural Aquatic Organics and Their Mechanistic Interactions on Anion Exchange Resins”, May 1987.
M.S. Thesis Students
  • Julie Davis, “The Influence of AOPs on the Biodegradabily of Natural Organic Matter”, Dec. 1996.
  • Cheng-Hua (Michael) Zheng, “Influence of the H2O2/Vis-UV Process on Natural Organic Matter, Aug. 1996.
  • Ning R. (Rebecca) Xia, “Impact of Water Treatment Plant Operational Factors on the Production of Disinfection By-Products During Chloramination”, May 1996.
  • Charlene Baker, “Interference of Natural Organic Matter on Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Hydrogen Peroxide and Visible-Ultraviolet Irradiation”, Dec. 1995.
  • Carolyn Kirkpatrick, “Inactivation of Microorganisms by Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Irradiation”, Dec. 1994.
  • Kevin L. Worley, “Oxidation of Natural Organic Matter Using Hydrogen Peroxide and Visible-Ultraviolet Irradiation”, May 1994.
  • Harvey W. Sorensen, “Effect of Ozone Dose and Subsequent Biodegradation on Removal of Disinfection By-Product Precursors”, May 1993.
  • Sundararao M. Ajjaraapu, “Treatment of Spacecraft Humidity Condensate to Produce Potable Water Using Ion Exchange Resins and Adsorption Beds”, May 1992.
  • Margarita Lazardou, “Development and Evaluation of an Apparatus to Test Contaminated Soil for the Feasibility of In Situ Treatment to Promote Desorption of Hazardous Wastes”, Dec. 1990.
  • Susan V. Muckle, “Treatment of Spacecraft Humidity Condensate to Produce Potable Water”, May 1990.
  • Dannelle Belhateche, “Hydrogen Peroxide/ Visible-Ultraviolet Irradiation for the Oxidation of Environmental Contaminants”, Dec. 1998.
  • Yun Wang, “Removal of Polio, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A Virus by Softening, Coagulation/ Filtration, and Disinfection”, May 1987.
  • Alfred Ling, “Removal of Polio, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus by Water Treatment Unit Processes”, Dec. 1984.
M.S. Project Students
  • Julie P. Via, “Biodegradation Kinetic Coefficients for Phenolic Compounds at Low Concentrations as Measured by Radiorespirometry”, May 1994.
  • James W. Wieshuhn, “Off-Gas Treatment of Industrial and Environmental Remediation Sources in Texas”, May 1993.
  • Rajendra Kulkarni, “Control of the Asiatic Clams in the Coastal Water Authority Distribution System by Monochloramine”, 1992.
  • Fred Mittl, “Comparison of Methods for the Analysis of Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorite and Chlorate”, AY 1987.
  • Julius Ma, “Control of Corbicula in Surface Water”, AY 1987.
  • Lauy Jabry & Nasser Al-Tell, "Videotape Production of Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment," AY 1986.
  • Mary Ellen Whitworth, "Linkages Among Wastewater Whitworth Treatment Plant Discharges, Lake Houston Water Quality, and Potable Water Supply During Storm Events," AY 1985.
  • Jeffery Baker, "Hazardous Waste DisposalSite Remedial Action - A Comparison of Four Case Histories", AY 1983.

Awards and Honors

University Awards and Recognition
  • Outstanding Teacher Award from College, 1996
  • Outstanding teacher Award from College, 1994
  • Voted by Student Chapter ASCE—Outstanding Teacher of 1994, tie with another faculty member
  • Listed among the Outstanding Teachers in the College, 1984
Best Papers Awards
  • Association of Environmental Engineering Professors, 1993 Outstanding Paper Award for a paper judged "a landmark paper that has stood the test of time", October 4, 1993.
  • Third Place, 1982 Scientific and Technology Achievement Award, Control Systems Category, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; In recognition of a peer-reviewed paper co-authored with Gary S. Logsdon, chosen by U.S.EPA Science Advisory Board.
  • American Water Works Association 1980 Distribution Division Award; In recognition of the paper judged best in that Division published in the Journal American Water Works Association from July 1979 to June 1980; June 8, 1981.
  • Third Place, 1979 Scientific and Technology Achievement Award, Control Systems Category, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; In recognition of a peer-reviewed paper co-authored with Gary S. Logsdon, chosen by U.S.EPA Science Advisory Board.
  • First Place, 1979 Scientific and Technology Achievement Award, Control Systems Category, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; In recognition of a peer-reviewed paper co-authored with Alan A. Stevens, chosen by U.S.EPA Science Advisory Board.
  • American Water Works Association 1978 Publications Award; In recognition of the best overall paper published in the Journal American Water Works Association from July 1977 to June 1978; June 25, 1979.
  • American Water Works Association 1976 Water Quality Division Award; In recognition of the paper judged best in that Division published in the Journal American Water Works Association from July 1975 to June 1976; May 9, 1977.
  • American Water Works Association 1970 Publications Award; In recognition of the best overall paper published in the Journal American Water Works Association from July 1969 to June 1970; June 14, 1971.
  • American Water Works Association 1965 Resources Division Award; In recognition of the paper judged best in that Division published in the Journal American Water Works Association from July 1964 to June 1965; May 23, 1966.
  • Harrison Prescott Eddy Award for the Water Pollution Control Federation; In recognition of the best research paper published in the Journal Water Pollution Control Federation during 1962; October 9, 1963.
Other Awards and Honors
  • Abel Wolman Award of Excellence, American Water Works Association, 2006.
  • Edward J. Cleary Award, American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 2003.
  • Esther Farfel Award, 1996.
  • Abraham E. Duckler Outstanding Faculty Member of the Year, Engineering Alumni Association, 1995.
  • Honored by the City of Houston on University of Houston Appreciation Day, 1995.
  • Elected Honorary Member, Chi Epsilon, 1994.
  • Senior Faculty Research Award, Cullen College of Engineering, 1994.
  • Sigma Xi (Honorary Science and Research Society) Outstanding Faculty Research Award, 1994, Faculty Research Award Lecture, November 2, 1994.
  • Election to the National Academy of Engineering, 1994.
  • Greenwood Award, For bringing honor and attention to the University of Houston, December, 13, 1993.
  • 1992-93 Chi Epsilon Excellence in Teaching Award for the Southwest District, March, 1993.
  • Elected Honorary Member, American Water Works Association, June, 1989.
  • Nominated for the NSF National Medal of Science by the Texas Section, American Water Works Association, March, 1989,
  • Paper Selected as for "Citation Classics®" by Current Contents for being cited more than 250 times, August 15, 1988.
  • Elected to member rank of Fellow, American Society of Civil Engineers, January, 1986.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Distinguished Career Award, July 27, 1982.
  • American Water Works Association Research Award, June 8, 1981.
  • Silver Medal for Superior Service, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 2, 1971.
  • Walter L. Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize, May 9, 1967.
Who's Who Listings
  • Who's Who in the Frontier of Science and Technology
  • Who's Who in America
  • American Men and Women of Science
  • Who's Who in Technology

Research Interests

The reaction of chlorine with organic matter has long been known because of the taste and odor problems these reactions have caused in drinking water. In 1973, however, research being conducted ian Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) research laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio dramatically changed our understanding of these reactions by identifying for the first time, specific organic compounds that were formed during the disinfection of drinking water with free chlorine. The finding that these compounds were suspected human carcinogens forever changed the view of drinking water disinfection.

Early research was focused in these two locations, the early work on treatment and control being conducted by the engineers and chemists working on the research team I headed. Organizationally this was in the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA in Cincinnati. This work was the basis of the 1981 book Treatment Techniques for Controlling Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water, published by USEPA and the American Water Works Association (AWWA), now out of print. The scope of this research area has now broadened greatly with dozens of researchers working on the problem and many funding agencies supporting this work, at least $2M per year by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation alone.

Since 1974, my co-workers, students, and I have published many papers on the subject of DBPs and other subjects. In 1996 my co-investigators and I completed a major project sponsored by the USEPA on DBP precursor control (EPA final report) and a large study sponsored by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) on the use of chloramination as an alternative to free chlorine as a method of controlling DBP formation. In 1997 I completed a joint project with Dr. Gerald E. Speitel Jr, University of Texas at Austin on the use of advanced oxidation processes and biodegradation for DBP precursor control. My students and I have also studied the UV/Vis-H2O2 AOP Process extensively.

Sponsored Research (Principal Investigator Unless Noted)
Title Funding Agency $ Amount of Symons Portion Inclusive Dates (Neglecting No-Cost Extensions)
Adv. Oxidation/Biodegradation Processes for the Destruction of TOC and Disinfection By-product Precursors
Co-PI
American Water Works Association Research Foundation $68,155  12/1/95-7/30/97
Acquisition of Equipment for Upgrading the Analytical Support Infrastructure for the Environmental Engineering Program at the University of Houston
Co-PI
Nat. Science Foundation $68,529 8/15/95-8/14/97
Factors Affecting Disinfection By-Products Formation During Chloramination American Water Works Association Research Foundation $249,980 7/1/93-12/31/95
Hydrogen Peroxide-Hydroxyl Free Radical for Off-gas Atmospheric Emissions from Industrial and Environmental Remediation Sources
Co-PI
Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center $33,822 5/1/93-8/31/96
Oxidation of Natural and Synthetic Organic Contam. in Drinking Water Using H2O2/Vis-UV Irradiation US Environmental Agency $363,769 8/17/92-8/17/94
Control of Disinfection By-Products and Bio-degradable Organic Matter through Ozone/GAC Treatment
Co-PI
US Environmental Protection Agency, UT Austin $70,923   10/1/90-9/30/92    
The Feasibility of In Situ Treatment of Soil to Promote Desorption of Hazardous Wastes, Thus, Permitting Capture and Treatment
Co-PI
Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center $114,205 6/1/89-4/30/93
Influence of Operational Variables on Space Station Drinking Water Treatment System National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration $144,440 4/1/88-12/31/91
Hydrogen Peroxide/Ultra-violet Irradiation Process for Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater
Co-PI
Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center $82,110 9/1/87-4/30/93 
Control of the Asiatic Clam Corbicula fluminea
Co-PI
City of Houston, Coastal Water Authority $69,658 10/1/86-6/30/88
Treatment of Organic Pollution by the Biodegradation/Adsorption Process
Co-PI
State of Texas (TATRP) $28,500 1/1/86-8/31/87 
Control of the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula)
Co-PI   
City of Houston, Department of Public Works $53,657 7/1/85-11/30/86
The Removal of Aquatic Humus From Drinking Water with Macroporous Anion Exchange Resins US Environmental Protection Agency $231,700 6/1/85-5/31/88
Linkages Between Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharges, Lake Houston Water Quality, and Potable Water Supply During Storm Events City of Houston, Department of Health and Human Services $81,456  7/1/84-3/31/86
Controlling Trihalomethane Concentrations in Drinking Water through Bromide Addition and Bromoform Removal US Environmental Protection Agency $16,085 7/1/84-12/31/84
Controlling Trihalomethane Concentrations in Drinking Water Through Bromide Addition and Bromoform Removal UH/REG Program $1,487 3/21/84-8/31/84

 

Presentations

Papers Presented at Professional Meetings
  • International Meetings (10)
  • National Meetings (28)
  • Regional, State or Local Meetings (17)
Invited Papers and Presentations
  • Symons, J. M., "1974 Revisited-An Historical Review of the Disinfection By-Products Issue", The 1997 Lecture in the Tsuan Hara Feng Distinguished Lecture Series In Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Oct. 9, 1997
  • Symons, J. M., "Effect of Chloramination on DBP Formation", Virginia Section AWWA, Williamsburg, VA, Sept. 15, 1997.
  • Symons, J. M., "Advanced Oxidation Processing for Controlling Natural Organic Matter in Drinking Water", southeast Texas Chapter of the Texas Section of the AWWA, Jan. 30, 1997.
  • Symons, J. M., "Drinking Water Treatment and Disinfection By-Products: Where We Are Today and Where We Are Going", The University of Texas at Austin, Feb. 19, 1997.
  • Symons, J. M., Speitel, G. E. Jr., Hwang, C. J., Krasner, S. W., Barrett, S. E., Diehl, A. C., Xia, R., "Factors Affecting Disinfection By-Product Formation During Chloramination," DBP Chemistry: A Seminar Designed for Water Quality Engineers and Chemists, Sunday Seminar, Water Quality Technology Conference, American Water Works Association, Boston, Mass., November 17, 1996.
  • Symons, J. M., and Zheng, M.C.H., "Behavior of Natural Organic Matter During Hydroxyl Radical Oxidation", Natural Organic Matter Workshop-Influence of Natural Organic Matter Characteristics on Drinking Water Treatment and Quality, Poitiers, France, Sept. 18-19, 1996.
  • Symons, J. M., "Disinfection By-Products - History, Production, and Control," U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2nd National Drinking Water Treatment Technology Transfer Workshop, August 12-14, 1996.
  • Symons, J. M., "1974 Revisited - An Historical Review of the Disinfection By-Products Issue," Gloyna Breakfast, Texas Water '96 Conference, April 17, 1996.
  • Symons, J.M., Xia, R., Diehl. A. C., Speitel, G. E. Jr., Hwang, C.J., and Krasner, S. W., "The Influence of Operational Variables of the Formation of Dissolved Organic Halogen During Chlorination," American Chemical Society, August 24, 1995.
  • Symons, J. M., Viewpoint, "Water Treatment - The Next Generation," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 87, No. 8, 8, (August, 1995).
  • Symons, J.M., "Factors Affecting DBP Formation During Chloramination," In: Today's Challenges, Tomorrow's Solutions, American Water Works Association Research Foundation, May 2, 1995, Dallas, Texas
  • Symons, J. M., "Seems Like Déjà Vu," Drinking Water Research, American Water Works Association Research Foundation", June, 1994.
  • Symons, J.M., "Disinfection and Disinfection By-Products of Concern in Water Distribution System," Water Quality in Potable Water Distribution Systems, Texas Section, American Water Works Association, Dallas, Texas, September 20, 1993.
  • Symons, J.M., Krasner, S. W., Simms, L. A, and Sclimenti, M., "Measuring Trihalomethane Species and Trihalomethane Precursor Concentrations in the Presence of Bromide Ion," American Chemical Society Symposium on Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment: The Chemistry of Their Formation and Control, American Chemical Society, August 24, 1993.
  • Symons, J.M., Fu, P. L-K, Kim, P. H-S, "Use of Anion Exchange Resins to Remove THM Precursors," 43rd Environmental Engineering Conference, Lawrence, Kansas, February 10, 1993.
  • Symons, J.M. "Disinfection and Disinfection By-Products Control," US Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Workshop, Kansas City, Missouri, February 19, 1992.
  • Symons, J.M., "Disinfection and Disinfection By-Products - A Status Report," Texas Section, AWWA, Houston, Texas October 15, 1991.
  • Symons, J.M., "Anion Exchange Resins for Removing Natural Organic Matter for Native Waters," Gordon Research Conference, Ion Exchange Resins and Reactive Polymers, Newport Beach, Rhode Island, Aug. 19-23, 1991
  • Symons, J.M., "The Formation and Control of Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water," American Chemical Society, Boston, Mass., April 24, 1990.
  • Symons, J.M., "This Week's Citation Classic," Current Contents, Agriculture, Biology, and Environmental Sciences, 19, 33,(August 15, 1988).
  • Symons, J.M., "Utilization of Various Treatment Unit Processes and Treatment Modifications for Trihalomethane Control," Workshop-Control of Organic Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water, 1978, 1979, US EPA.
  • Stevens, A.A. and Symons, J.M., "Formation and Measurement of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water," Workshop - Control of Organic Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water, 1978, 1979, USEPA.
  • Symons, J.M.; Love, O.T., Jr.; and Carswell, J.K., "Ozone/Chlorine Dioxide Oxidation Products of Organic Materials," In: Proceedings of International Ozone Institute Workshop, November 17-19, 1976, Cincinnati, Ohio, Rice, R.G. and Cotruvo, J.A., Eds., pp. 443-455 (1978).
  • Symons, J.M. and Stevens, A.A., "Physical-Chemical Pretreatment for the Removal of Precursors, " In: Proceedings - Oxidation Techniques in Drinking Water Treatment, Karlsruhe, FRG, September 11-13, 1978, EPA-570/9-79-020, US EPA, Washington, D.C., pp. 196-213.
  • Symons, J.M., Carswell, J.K., Clark, R.M., Dorsey, P., Geldreich, E.E., Heffernan, W.P., Hoff, J.C., Love, O.T., Jr., McCabe, L.J., and Stevens, A.A., "Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, and Chloramines as Alternatives to Chlorine for Disinfection of Drinking Water, State-of-the-Art," In: Proceedings of Second Conference on Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 31-November 4, 1977, pp. 555-560 (1978). Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide Technology for Disinfection of Drinking Water, Katz, J., Ed., Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J. (1980), pp. 2-86.

Selected Publications

Refereed Publications Journal Articles
  • Symons, J.M., "The Early History of Disinfection By-Products: A Personal Chronicle," Environmental Engineer, 37, Part I (1) 20-26 (Jan., 2001), Part II (2) 7-15 (Apr., 2001).
  • Diehl, A. C., Speitel, G. E. Jr., Symons, J. M., Krasner, S. W., Hwang, C. J., and Barrett, S. E., "DBP Formation During Chloramination," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 92, (6), 76-90 (June, 2000).
  • Speitel, G. E. Jr., Symons, J. M., Mialaret, J. M., and Wanielista, M. M. E., "AOP/Biofilm Processes for DOX Precursors," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 92, (10), 59-73 (October, 2000).
  • Symons, J. M. and Zheng, M. C-H, "Does the H2O2/Vis-UV Process Oxidize Bromide to Bromate?" Journal of the American Water Works Association, 89, (6) 106-109 (June, 1997).
  • Symons, J. M. and Worley, K.L., “An Advanced Oxidation Process for DBP Control”, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 87, (11), 66- 75 (Nov. 1995).
  • Symons, J. M., and Xia, R., “Interference of Br-, BrO3-, and ClO3- in the DOX  Determination, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 87, No. 8, 81-84  (August, 1995).
  • Craun, G. F., Bull, R. J., Clark, R. M, Doull, J., Grabow, W., Marsh, G.M., Okun,  D.A., Regli, S., Sobsey, M.D., and Symons, J.M., “Balancing Chemical and  Microbial Risks of Drinking Water Disinfection, Part II. Managing the Risks”,  Journal of Water Research, Science, and Technology - Aqua, 43, 5, 207-218, 1994.
  • Craun, G. F., Bull, R. J., Clark, R. M, Doull, J., Grabow, W., Marsh, G.M., Okun,  D.A., Regli, S., Sobsey, M.D., and Symons, J.M., “Balancing Chemical and  Microbial Risks of Drinking Water Disinfection, Part I., Benefits and Potential Risks”,  Journal of Water Research, Science, and Technology - Aqua, 43, 4, 192-199, 1994.
  • Symons, J. M., Speitel, G.E., Jr., Diehl, A. C., and Sorensen, H.W., Jr.,  “Precursor Control in Waters Containing Bromide,” Journal of the American Water Works Association, 86, 6, 48-60, June, 1994).
  • Speitel, G.E., Jr., Symons, J.M., Diehl, A.C., Sorensen, H. W., and Cipparone,  L.A., “Effect of Ozone Dosage and Subsequent Biodegradation of Removal of  DBP Precursors, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 85, 5, 86-95  (May, 1993).
  • O’Neill, M.W., Symons, J.M., Lazaridou, M.E., and Park, J-B, “In Situ Treatment of  Soil for the Extraction of Organic Contaminants’, Environmental Progress, 12, 1, 12- 23 (February, 1993).
  • Symons, J.M., Krasner, S.W., Simms, L.A., and Sclimenti, M., “Measurement of  THM and Precursor Concentrations Revisited: The Effect of Bromide Ion,” Journal of  the American Water Works Association, 85, 1, 51-62 (January, 1993).
  • Kim, Philip H-S., and Symons, J.M., “Using Anion Exchange Resins to Remove THM Precursors”, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 83, 12, 61-68 (December, 1991).
  • Belhateche, D., and Symons, J.M., “Using Cobalt-Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry to Measure Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration in Organically Laden Groundwaters” Journal of the American Water Works Association, 83, 8, 70-73 (August, 1991).
  • Fu, P. L-K, and Symons, J.M., “Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Anion Exchange Resins”, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 82, 10, 70-77 (October, 1990).
  • Reckhow, D.A., Hull,C., Lehan, E, Symons, J.M., Kim, H-S, Chang, Y-M, Simms, L. and Dressman, R.C., "The Determination of Total Organic Halide in Water: An Comparative Study of Two Instruments,” International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 38, 1-7 ( 1990).
  • Cameron, G.N., Symons, J.M., Bushek, D., and Kulkarni, R., "The Effect of Temperature and pH on the Toxicity of Monochloramine to the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea), Journal of the American Water Works Association, 81, 10, 62-71 (October, 1989)
  • Cameron, G.N., Symons, J.M., Spencer, S.R., and Ma, J.Y., "Comparison of  Biocides for Minimizing Trihalomethane Formation during Control of the Asiatic  Clam (Corbicula fluminea), Journal of the American Water Works Association,  81,10, 53-62 (October, 1989).
  • Symons, J.M., Whitworth, M.E., Bedient, P.B., Haughton, J.G., Impact of  Enforcement Activities in the Watershed on Fecal Coliform Densities in the City of  Houston's Drinking Water Source", Journal of the American Water Works  Association, 81, 8, 30-34 ( August, 1989).
  • Rao, V.C., Symons, J.M., Ling, A., Wang, P., Metcalf, T.G., Hoff, J.C., and Melnick, J.L., "Removal of Hepatitis A Virus and Rotavirus in Drinking Water Treatment Processes", Journal of the American Water Works Association, 80, (2), 59-76 (Feb. 1988).
  • Symons, J.M., Fu, P.L.K., Dressman, R.C., and Stevens, A.A., "The Influence of Bromide Ion on Organic Chlorine and Organic Bromine Formation During Free Chlorination,  Journal of the American Water Works Association., 79, (9), 114-118 (Sept., 1987).
  • Clark, R.M., Symons, J.M., and Ireland, J.C., "Evaluating Field Scale GAC Systems for Drinking Water, Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE, 112, SA-4, 744-755 (Aug. 1986).
  • Symons, J.M., "Granular Activated Carbon for Drinking Water Treatment-A Historical Review of the Attempted Federal Regulation," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 76, No. 8, 34-43 (Aug., 1984).
  • Logsdon, G.S.; Symons, J.M., and Sorg, T.J., "Monitoring Water Filters for Asbestos Removal," Journal Environmental Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 107, EE6, 1297-1315 (December 1981).
  • Logsdon, G.S., Symons, J.M.; Hoye, R.L., Jr.; and Arozarena, M.M., "Alternative Filtration Methods for Removal of Giardia Cysts and Cyst Models," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 73, 2, 111-118 (February 1981).
  • Buelow, R.W.; Millete, J.R.; McFarren, W.F.; and Symons*, J.M., "The Behavior of Asbestos-Cement Pipe Under Various Water Quality Conditions--A Progress Report, Part I--Experimental Results," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 72, 2, 91-102 (February 1980).
  • Stevens, A.A. and Symons, J.M., "Measurement of Trihalomethane and Precursor Concentration Changes," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 69, 10 546-554 (October 1977).
  • Logsdon, G.S. and Symons, J.M.; "Removal of Asbestiform Fibers by Water Filtration," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 69, 9, 499-506 (September 1977).
  • Larson, C.D., Love O.T., Jr., and Symons, J.M., "Recent Developments in Chlorination Practice," Journal of the New England Water Works Association, 91, 3, 260-271 (September 1977).
  • Symons, J.M. Bellar, T.A., Carswell, J.K., DeMarco, J., Kropp, K.L., Robeck, G.G., Seegar, D.R., Slocum, C.J., Smith, B.L., and Stevens, A.A., "National Organics Reconnaissance Survey for Halogenated Organics in Drinking Water," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 67, 11- Part 1, 634-647 (November 1975), Update, 67, 12, 708-709 (December 1975).
  • Buelow, R.W., Kropp, K.L., Withered, J., and Symons, J.M., "Nitrate Removal by Anion Exchange Resins," Journal of the American Water Works Association,  67, 9, 528-534 (September 1975).
  • Symons, J.M. and Robeck, G.G., "Treatment Processes for Coping with Variation in Raw Water Quality," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 65, 3, 142-145 (March 1975).
  • Logsdon, G.S. and Symons, J.M., "Mercury Removal by Conventional Water Treatment Techniques," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 65, 8, 554-562 (August 1973).
  • Buelow, R.W., Carswell, J.K., and Symons, J.M., "An Improved Method for Determining Organics by Activated Carbon Adsorption and Solvent Extraction (Parts I and II)," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 65, 1, 57-72; 3, 195-199 (Jan., March 1973).
  • McCabe, L.J., Symons, J.M., Lee, R.D., and Robeck, G.G., "Survey of Community Water Supply Systems," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 62, 11, 670-687 (November 1970).
  • Lee, R.D., Symons, J.M., and Robeck, G.G., "Watershed Human-Use Level and Water Quality," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 62, 7, 412-422 (July 1970).
  • Symons, J.M., Carswell, J.K. and Robeck, G.G., "Mixing of Water Supply Reservoirs for Quality Control," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 62, 5, 322-332 (May 1970).
  • Carswell, J.K., Symons, J.M., and Robeck, G.G., "Research on Recreational Use of Watersheds and Reservoirs," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 61, 6, 297-304 (June 1969).
  • Symons, J.M., Irwin, W.H., Clark, R.M., and Robeck, G.G., "Discussion Closure of 'Management and Measurement of DO in Impoundments'," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 95, SA 2, 342-349 (April 1969).
  • Irwin, W.H., Symons, J.M. and Robeck, G.G., "Discussion Closure of 'Impoundment Destratification by Mechanical Pumping'," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 94, SA 1, 176-178 (February 1968).
  • Symons, J.M., Irwin, W.H.; Clark, R.M.; and Robeck, G.G.; "Management and Measurement of 'DO' in Impoundments," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 93, SA 6, 181-209 (December 1967).
  • Symons, J.M., Irwin, W.H., Robinson, E.L., and Robeck, G.G., "Impoundment Destratification for Raw Water Quality Control Using Either Mechanical- or Diffused-Air Pumping," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 59, 10, 1286-1291 (October 1967).
  • DeMarco, J., Symons, J.M., and Robeck, G.G., "Behavior of Synthetic Organics in Stratified Impoundments," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 59, 8, 965-976 (August 1967).
  • DeMarco, J., Kurbiel, J., Symons, J.M., and Robeck, G.G., "Influence of Environmental Factors on the Nitrogen Cycle in Water," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 59, 5, 580-592 (May 1967).
  • Symons, J.M., Irwin, W.H., and Robeck, G.G., "Impoundment Water Quality Changes Caused by Mixing," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 93, SA 2, 1 20 (April 1967).
  • Symons, J.M., "Discussion of 'Dichromate vs. Ceric Sulfate in COD Determination'; by El Dib and Ramadan," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 92, SA 6, 151-152 (December 1966).
  • Irwin, W.H., Symons, J.M., and Robeck, G.G., "Impoundment Destratification by Mechanical Pumping," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 92, SA 6, 21 40 (December 1966).
  • Elder, R.A.; Krenkel, P.A.; Symons, J.M.; Lee, G.F.; Parker, F.L.; O’Conner, D.J.; Orlob, G.T.; Benedict, P.C.; Brooks, N.H.; and VonGunten, G.H., "Hydraulic Engineering Aspects of Water Quality Management," Journal Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 92, HY 6, 61-80 (November 1966).
  • Bechir, M.H. and Symons*, J.M., "The Effect of Nitrogen Deficiency on the Behavior of the Complete-Mixing Activated Sludge Process," International Journal of Air and Water Pollution, 10, 3, 191-206 (March 1966).
  • Tenney, M.H., Johnson, R.H., Jr., and Symons, J.M., "Discussion Closure of 'Minimal Solids Aeration Activated Sludge,'" Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 91, SA 2, 63-65 (April 1965).
  • Symons, J.M., Weibel, S.R., and Robeck, G.G., "Impoundments Influences on Water Quality," Journal of the American Water Works Association, 57, 1, 51-75 (January, 1965).
  • Symons, J.M. and Labonté, R., "A Procedure for Continuous Nitrification Corrections During Warburg Respirometer Studies," Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 37, 6, 842-856 (June 1965).
  • Tenney, M.H., Johnson, R.H., Jr., and Symons*, J.M., "Minimal Solids Aeration Complete Mixing Activated Sludge,'" Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 90, SA 1, 23-42 (February 1964).  Digest in Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 130, 705-707 (1965).
  • Symons, J.M., "Simple, Continuous-Flow, Low and Variable Rate, Pump," Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 35, 11, 1480-1485 (November 1963).
  • Washington, D.R. and Symons, J.M., "Volatile Sludge Accumulation in Activated Sludge Systems," Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 34, 8, 767-709 (August 1962).
  • Symons, J.M. and del Valle-Rivera, L.A., "Metabolism of Organic Sulfonates by Activated Sludge," Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 87, SA 5, 53-70 (September 1961).  Proceedings 16th Industrial Waste Conference, Lafayette, Ind., May 2 4, 1961, Engineering Extension Series No. 109, Engineering Bulletin, Purdue University, 46, 2, 555-571 (March 1962).
  • Symons, J.M., McKinney, R.E., Smith, R.M., and Donovan, E.J., Jr., "Degradation of Nitrogen-Containing Organic Compounds by Activated Sludge," International Journal of Air and Water Pollution, 4, 1/2, 115-138 (June 1961).  Advances in Biological Waste Treatment, Eckenfelder and McCabe, Eds., 41-59, Pergamon Press, London, U.K. (1963).
  • Symons, J.M., McKinney, R.E., and Hassis, H.H., "A Procedure for Determination of the Biological Treatability of Industrial Wastes," Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 32, 8, 841-852 (August 1960).
  • McKinney, R.E. and Symons, J.M., "Bacterial Degradation of ABS, I.  Fundamental Biochemistry," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 31, 5, 549-556 (May 1959).
  • Symons, J.M., and McKinney, R.E., "The Biochemistry of Nitrogen in the Synthesis of Activated Sludge," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 30, 7, 874-890 (July 1958).
  • McKinney, R.E.; Symons, J.M.; Shifrin, W.G.,; and Vezina, M., "Design and Operation of a Complete Mixing Activated Sludge System," Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 30, 3, 287-295 (March 1958).
Conference Proceedings and Transactions
  • Fu, P. K-L and Symons, J.M., "Mechanistic Interactions of Aquatic Substances on Anion Exchange Resins," Advances in Chemistry Series No. 219, Influences of Aquatic Humic Substances on Fate and Treatment of Pollutants, American Chemical Society, pp. 796 - 811 (Jan., 1989)
Non-refereed Conference, Journal, and Abstract Publications
  • Symons, J. M., "The Early History of Disinfection By-Products: A Personal Chronicle," Environmental Engineer, 37, Part I (1) 20-26 (Jan., 2001), Part II (2) 7-15 (Apr., 2001).
  • Speitel, G. E. Jr, Symons, J. M., Davis, J. M and Wanielista, M. M., "Destruction of TOC and Disinfection By-Product Precursors through Advanced Oxidation and Biodegradation", In: 1998 Annual Conference Proceedings- Water Research, Vol. C. A.W.W.A., Dallas, Texas, June 21-25, 1998, pp 405-422.
  • Symons, J. M., Speitel, G. E. Jr., Hwang, C. J., Krasner, S. W., Barrett, S. E., Diehl, A. C., Xia, R., "Factors Affecting Disinfection By-Product Formation During Chloramination," DBP Chemistry: A Seminar Designed for Water Quality Engineers and Chemists, Sunday Seminar, Water Quality Technology Conference Proceedings CD-ROM, November 17-21, 1996, American Water Works Association. Krasner, S. W.
  • Symons, J.M., Speitel, G.E. Jr., Diehl, A. C., Hwang, C. J., Xia, R., and Barrett, S.E., "Effects of Water Quality Parameters on DBP Formation During Chloramination," In: 1996 Annual Conference Proceedings--Water Quality, (D), American Water Works Association, Toronto, Ontario June 23-27, 1996, pp. 601 - 628.
  • Symons, J. M., Xia, R., Speitel, G. E. Jr., Diehl, A. C., Hwang, C. J., Barrett, S.E., Krasner, S. W., "Disinfection By-Product Formation During Pilot-Scale Chloramination of Three Different Surface Waters," In: 1996 Annual Conference Proceedings--Water Quality, (D), American Water Works Association, Toronto, Ontario June 23-27, 1996, pp. 651 - 680.
  • Kirkpatrick, C.C., Symons, J. M., and Roberts, D. J., "Disinfection and Precursor Destruction using the H2O2/Vis-UV Process - Two Treatments in One for Small Systems," In: Proceedings, 1995 Water Quality Technology Conference, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado, New Orleans, Louisiana, (November 12-16, 1995) pp. 1967-1984
  • Diehl, A. C., Speitel, G.E. Jr., Symons, J.M., Krasner, S. W., and Hwang, C.J., "Factors Affecting Disinfection By-Product Formation During Chloramination," In: 1995 Annual Conference Proceedings-- Water Quality, American Water Works Association, Anaheim, Calif., June 18-22, 1995, pp. 535-546.
  • Symons, J. M., Roberts, D.J., Worley, K.L, and Kirkpatrick, C.C., "Evaluation of the H2O2/Vis-UV Advanced Oxidation Process for Controlling DBP Precursors and Providing Disinfection for Small Systems," In: 1994 Annual Conference Proceedings--Water Quality, American Water Works Association, New York, N.Y., June 19-23, 1994, pp. 907-927.
  • Symons, J. M., Speitel, G.E. Jr., Diehl, A.C., and Sorensen, H.W., "Behavior of Bromine-Substituted THMs and HAAs During Ozonation and Biodegradation, " In: 1993 Annual Conference Proceedings--Water Quality, American Water Works Association, San Antonio, Texas, June 6-10, 1993, pp. 775-808.
  • Krasner, S.W., Sclimenti, M.J., Means, E.G., Symons, J.M., and Simms, L., "The Impact of Chlorine Dose, Residual Chlorine, Bromide, and Organic Carbon on Trihalomethane Speciation," In "Proceedings, 1992 Water Quality Technology Conference, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado, Toronto, Canada, (November 15-19, 1992) pp. 1745-1759.
  • Symons, J.M., Fu, P., L-K, and Kim, P., H-S, "Use of Anion Exchange Resin to Remove THM Precursors," In: 43rd Annual Transactions Environmental Engineering Conference, Lawrence, Kansas (February 10, 1993).
  • Speitel, G.E., Jr., Symons, J.M., Diehl, A.C., Sorensen, H.W., and Cipparone, L.A., "Effect of Ozone Dose and Subsequent Biodegradation on Removal of Disinfection By-Product Precursors," In: 1992 Annual Conference Proceedings, American Water Works Association, Vancouver, British Columbia June 18-22, 1992, pp. 543-551.
  • Kim, H-S, and Symons, J.M., "Use of Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Trihalomethane Precursors," In: 1990 Annual Conference Proceedings, American Water Works Association, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 17-21, 1990, 1513-1536.
  • Kim, H-S, and Symons, J.M., "The Removal of Various Aquatic Humic Substances by Anion Exchange Resins," In: 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings, American Water Works Association, Los Angeles, Calif., June 18-22, 1989, pp. 1627-1642.
  • Fu, P.L.K., and Symons, J.M., "Removal of Aquatic Organics by Anion Exchange Resins," In: 1988 Annual Conference Proceedings, American Water Works Association, Orlando, Florida, June 19-23, 1988, pp. 597-628.
  • Symons, J.M.; Stevens, A.A.; Clark, R.M.; Geldreich, E.E.; Love, O.T., Jr.; and DeMarco, J., "Removing Trihalomethanes from Drinking Water - -; An Overview of Treatment Techniques," Water/Engineering & Management, 128, 7, 50 53, 56, 61 64 (July, 1981).
  • Dressman, R.C.; McFarren, E.F.; and Symons, J.M., "An Evaluation of the Determination of Total Organic Chlorine (TOCl) in Water by Adsorption onto Ground Granular Activated Carbon, Pyrohydrolysis and Chloride Ion Measurement," In: Proceedings Fifth AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, Paper 3A-5, Kansas City, Missouri, December 5-6, 1977, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado (1978).
  • Stevens, A.A. and Symons, J.M., "Analytical Considerations for Halogenated Organic Removal Studies," In: Proceedings Second AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, Paper No. XXVI, Dallas, Texas, December 2-3, 1974, The American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado (1975).
  • Stevens, A.A. and Symons, J.M., "Measurement of Organics in Drinking Water," In: Proceedings First AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, pp. XXIII-1-XXIII-25, Cincinnati, Ohio, December 3-4, 1973, The American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado (1974).
  • Carswell, J.K., Buelow, R.W. and Symons, J.M., "Removing Organic Matter from Drinking Water--Monitoring Treatment Processes," News of Environmental Research in Cincinnati, December 7, 1973, 4 pp.
Reviewed Final Project Reports
  • Speitel, G.E. Jr, Symons, J.M., Wanielista, M.M., and Davis, J.M.,"Advanced Oxidation/Biodegradation Processes for the Destruction of TOC and Disinfection By-Product Precursers". American Water Works Research Foundation, Report No. 30697, 1999, 139 pp.
  • Symons, J. M., Speitel, G.E. Jr., Hwang, C.J., Krasner, S.W., Barrett, S.E., Diehl, A. C., and Xia, R. "Factors Affecting Disinfection By-Product Formation During Chloramination," American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Report No. 90728, 1998, 330 pp.
  • Symons, J.M. and Fu, P.L.K., "Treatment of Drinking Water by Bromide Addition and Powdered Activated Carbon Adsorption," Final Report Cooperative Agreement CR-811659-01-0, 64 pp, EPA/600/2-86/032, USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, (December, 1985) UHCE 86-3.
Other Final Project Reports
  • Symons, J.M., "The Removal of Aquatic Humus from Drinking Water with Macroporous Anion Exchange Resins," USEPA Research Grant R-812155-02-0, (May, 1990).
  • Symons, J.M., "Oxidation of Natural Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water Using H2O2 and Visible -UV Irradiation," USEPA Research Grant R-817787-01-0, (August, 1996).
  • Symons, J.M., "Interim Treatment Guide for Controlling Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water Using Granular Activated Carbon," USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, 55 pp. + 3 Appendices (January, 1978).
  • Symons, J.M., "Interim Treatment Guide for Control of Chloroform and Other Trihalomethanes," USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, 48 pp. + Appendices (June, 1976).
  • Symons, J.M.,"Preliminary Assessment of Suspected Carcinogens in Drinking Water-Report to Congress," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (December, 1976).
  • Love, O.T., Jr.; Carswell, J.K.; Stevens, A.A.; Sorg, T.J.; Logsdon, G.S.; and Symons, J.M., "Preliminary Results of Pilot Plants to Remove Water Contaminants," Appendix VI, Dr. Preliminary Assessment of Suspended Carcinogens in Drinking Water - Interim Report to Congress - USEPA Report, Washington, D.C. (June, 1975).

Books

Books
  • Symons, James M., Plain Talk about Drinking Water, ISBN 0-89867-606-1, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo. February, 1992, 103 pp., Translated into Japanese, City of Osaka, 1993, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-89867-729-7, February, 1994, 152 pp., 3rd Edition, ISBN-0-8967-860-9, 1997, 238 pp., 4th Edition, IS NB -58321-126-8, 2001, 276 pp., 5th Edition, ISBN 1-58321-742-8, 2010, 193 pp.
  • The Drinking Water Dictionary, Symons, J.M. Ed.,  & Proj. Supervisor, Bradley, L.C., Jr., Cleveland, T.C., Assoc. eds. ISBN 1-58321-013X, 506 pp, March, 2000, The 2nd edition, retitled The Water Dictionary, Symons, J.M. Ed. Emeritus, ISBN 1-58321-741-X, 715 pp., Nov., 2009.
  • Symons, J. M., Drinking Water;Refreshing Answers to All Your Questions Texas A & M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-659-1, paper, ISBIN 0-89096-646-X cloth, May, 1995
  • Packham, R.F., and Symons, J.M., Drinking Water - The Plain Facts , Water Research Centre, United Kingdom, ISBN 1 898920 25 7 125 Pgs. (1995).
  • Symons, J. M., TRINKWASSER , R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH, Müchen, Federal Republic of Germany, ISBN 3-486-26167-3, 66 Pgs., 1994. 
  • Symons, J.M.; Stevens, A.A; Clark, R.M.; Geldreich, E.E.; Love, O.T., Jr.; and DeMarco, J., Treatment Techniques for Controlling Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water, EPA-600/2-81/156 (September 1981), 289 pp. Committee on Pollution Control, Tokyo, Japan (Dec. 1984) in Japanese.
  • Symons, J.M., Water Quality Behavior in Reservoirs--A Compilation of Published Research Papers, PHS Publication No. 1930, Cincinnati, Ohio (1969), 616 pp.
  • Symons, J.M., Wiebel, S.R. and Robeck, G.G., Influence of Impoundments on Water Quality -- A  Review of Literature and Statement  of  Research  Needs, PHS Publ. No. 999-WP-18, Cincinnati, Ohio (October 1964), 78 pp. 

 

Book Chapters
  • Symons, J. M., Krasner, S. W., Sclimenti, M. J., Simms, L. A., Sorensen, H. W., Jr., Speitel, G.E., Jr., and Diehl, A.C., “Influence of Bromide Ion on Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Formation”, In: Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatement: The Chemistry of Their Formation and Control, Eds. Minear , R.A., and Amy, G.L., CRC Press, Inc., 1996, pp. 91-130.
  • Symons, J. M., Fu, P, L-K, and Kim, P. H-S, “Sorption and Desorption Behavior of  Natural Organic Matter onto Strong-Base Anion Exchangers”, In: Ion Exchange  Technology - Advanced in Pollution Control, Technomic Publishing Co., Chapter 4,  149 - 192, Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, Penna. (1995).
  • Stevens, A.A. and Symons, J.M. "Alternative Disinfection Processes" Chapter 14, In: Organic Carcinogens  in Drinking Water:  Detection, Treatment and Risk Assessment, Ram, Calabrese and Christman, Eds. John Wiley & Sons (1986) pp. 265-290.
  • Ridley, J.E. and Symons, J.M., "New Approaches to Water Quality Control in Impoundments," In: Water Pollution Microbiology, Mitchell, R., Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1972, Chapter 17, pp. 389-412.